[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2021.06.21.031Pharm Sci Asia 2021; 48(6), 523-534

Antimicrobial activity of a combination of three natural plant extracts and development of a herbal soap

Nirupama Wijayawardhana1, Dhanushi Cooray1, Banukie Jayasuriya1*, Inoka Uluwaduge2, Farah Meedin3, Menuka Arawwawala4

1 Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
3 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
4 Industrial Technology Institute, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka

Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula and Nelumbo nucifera are medicinal plants that are frequently found in Sri Lanka. Although the antimicrobial activity of these plants has been investigated individually, the effectiveness of a combined extract has not been determined in previous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of A. indica, C. fistula, N. nucifera and their combined extract to formulate an antimicrobial herbal soap. Different concentrations of aqueous and ethanol extracts of powdered leaves of A. indica, C. fistula and flowers of N. nucifera were prepared separately. Each extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using the agar well diffusion method. Combined extract was prepared using selected extracts of each plant with the highest antimicrobial activity. Combined extract formulated from ethanol extract of C. fistula and aqueous extracts of A. indica and N. nucifera was incorporated into a herbal soap. The antimicrobial activity of the combined extract and the herbal soap was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Combined extract and formulated soap exhibited antimicrobial activity against tested organisms with the highest activity against S. aureus. The physical and chemical parameters of the formulated herbal soap were determined. The pH of the formulated soap at 28℃ was 9.11, the percentage of alcohol insoluble matter and free alkali were 24.6% and 1.6% respectively, which were within the accepted range. In conclusion, compared to the results of individual extracts, the soap has demonstrated enhanced antimicrobial activity against tested organisms. Further development of herbal soap as a value added product would be beneficial.


Azadirachta indica, Antimicrobial activity, Cassia fistula, Combined extract, Herbal soap, Nelumbo nucifera

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