[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2021.03.20.009Pharm Sci Asia 2021; 48(3), 269-276

Antibiotic use evaluation using WHO methodology in a private hospital, Yangon, Myanmar

Honey Maung1, Arthorn Riewpaiboon2, Farsai Chanjaruporn2*

1 Social, Economic and Administrative Pharmacy (SEAP) Graduate Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Division of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Reliable data on antibiotic consumption is a prerequisite for understanding the situation of antibiotic use. In this study, we aimed to evaluate antibiotic use, antibiotic consumption patterns, and antibiotic prescribing patterns in the outpatient and inpatient departments (OPD and IPD, respectively) of a private hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017. Antibiotic use data from January-December 2017 was retrieved from the hospital database and medical records, which included 9,134 and 4,140 outpatient and inpatient, respectively, antibiotic-containing prescriptions. The World Health Organization (WHO) unit measurement (defined daily dose, DDD) and prescribing indicators were used for evaluating antibiotic consumption and prescribing patterns, respectively. Antibiotics were administered in 21% of outpatient visits and 70% of inpatient admissions. Regarding antibiotic consumption, 44,959 and 31,861 DDDs were consumed in OPD and IPD, respectively. Broad- spectrum antibiotics (beta-lactam penicillins, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins) were mostly prescribed in both OPDs and IPDs. Moreover, antibiotics were mostly prescribed for respiratory tract infections and acute viral infections in the OPD. Almost all prescribing indicators were acceptable in accordance with the WHO standard values, except the rate of generic prescription, which was lower than the recommended rate. The findings suggested that the government sector and hospitals should develop policies and regulations to evaluate antibiotic use. Prescription practice guidelines for antibiotics are needed to ensure appropriate medicine use. Furthermore, important findings of this study could contribute to the design of various interventions to promote rational use of antibiotics.


Antibiotic use evaluation; Antibiotic consumption; Prescribing indicator; WHO methodology; Myanmar

Download full paper (PDF File size: 369.88 KB.)

November-December 2021

See other volume


September - October 2021

See other volume


July - August 2021

See other volume


May - June 2021

See other volume


March - April 2021

See other volume


January - February 2021

See other volume


Aims and Scope
Editorial Board
Publication Ethics
Instruction to Authors
All Volumes & Issues
Submit Online
Contact us
Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University
Mahidol University
Member's menu

You're now loging on with following account:
Guest (unknown)

Please Sign in or Register

Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia by Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Thailand is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

    Copyright © 2017-2024
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, THAILAND

We use Cookies

This site uses cookies to personalise your experience and analyse site traffic. By Clicking ACCEPT or continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.