[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2023.04.23.406Pharm Sci Asia 2023; 50(4), 296-306

Evaluation of quality parameters and antioxidant activity of commercial melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) for functional food

Martha Sari1*, Tutik Murniasih1, Syaban Putra Adiguna2, Olga Galih Rakha Siwi3, I Made Artika4,5, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra1

1 Research Center for Vaccine and Drug, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jalan Raya Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3 Departement of Aquatic Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor
4 Eijkman Research Center for Molecular Biology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Jalan Raya Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, Bogor, Indonesia
5 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Darmaga Campus, Bogor, Indonesia

Functional foods are ingredients which provide health benefits. Gnetum gnemon Linn (melinjo) seeds contain bioactive compounds with extremely high antioxidant activity and are considered to have the potential to be used as raw materials for functional food. The utilization of melinjo seeds as functional food ingredients must consider the general and specific quality standards to ensure the generated products deliver the intended health benefits. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific and nonspecific quality parameters of commercial melinjo products in the form of extracts and flour as well as evaluate its antioxidant capacity as functional food raw materials. The nonspecific parameters evaluated include drying loss, microbial contamination, moisture, total ash, insoluble acid ash, extract yield, fat, and crude fiber. The specific parameters tested were phenolic and flavonoid content, water- and ethanol-soluble compounds, and marker compounds. The results showed that the nonspecific parameter values extract and flour of melinjo seed met the standards provisions. Analysis of specific parameters showed that the extract was dark brown in the form of a thick paste, while flour was light brown powdery. Both have a distinctive odor with a slightly bitter taste. The phenolic and flavonoid content of the extract was higher than that of the flour. To the contrary, the water- and ethanol-soluble compounds of the extract were lower than that of the flour. Resveratrol, one of the marker compounds in melinjo seeds, was identified by TLC and HPLC. The melinjo seed extract was found to have strong antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 1.45 mg/ml. On the basis of the nonspecific and specific parameter values together with the antioxidant activity it was concluded that the melinjo seed extract has high potential to be used as a raw material for functional food.


Gnetum gnemon, Functional food, Antioxidant, Phenolic, Resveratrol

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