[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2023.03.23.492Pharm Sci Asia 2023; 50(3), 229-237

Optimization of microwave-assisted fish oil extraction from Patin (Pangasius micronemus) using Response Surface Methodology-Box Behnken Design (RSM-BBD)

Anggita Rosiana Putri1*, Widiastuti Setyaningsih2, Ceferino Carrera Fernandez3, Miguel Palma3, Abdul Rohman4, Sugeng Riyanto5

1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
2 Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Depok, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (ceiA3), IVAGRO, P.O. Box 40, Puerto Real, Cadiz, SPAIN
4 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Sekip Utara, Sendowo, Sinduadi, Mlati, Sleman, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
5 Pharmacy Study Program, Gunadarma University, Depok, West Java, Indonesia

Patin (Pangasius micronemus) fish oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic. To obtain the benefits of omega-3, it is necessary to develop an efficient extraction method for patin oil (PO). This study aimed to develop the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for fish oil from patin. Three independent variables with three levels were priorly evaluated using Box–Behnken design, including temperature (30, 60, 90°C), solvent composition (30, 60, 90% of ethyl acetate in methanol), and solvent to sample ratio (10:1, 15:1, 20:1). The significant variables were then optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A second-order quadratic model of RSM suggested an extraction at 60°C with 56% ethyl acetate in methanol as an extraction solvent and a solvent-to-sample ratio of 20:1. A kinetics study under the optimum MAE conditions approved the complete recovery (38.84%) starting at 15 min of extraction time. The high precision of the MAE process was confirmed by the coefficient of variation less than 3%. Additionally, the microwave-produced fish oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to contain α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic as omega-3. Henceforth, it has been demonstrated that microwave-assisted fish oil extraction developed in this study is efficient for high-quality PO production.


Patin oil, Box-Behnken design, Response surface methodology, Omega-3, GC-MS

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