[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2023.01.22.292Pharm Sci Asia 2023; 50(1), 24-33

Development and validation of a GC-MS method for determination of amphetamine-type stimulants and ketamine in human hair

Tran Viet Hung1, Ha Minh Hien1, Pham Quoc Chinh2, Pham Thi Thu Ha2, Nguyen Duc Nhu2, Nguyen Duc Tuan3*

1 Institute of Drug Quality Control Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2 National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Hanoi City, Vietnam
3 Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

A solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for determination of seven amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) including amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylendioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), 4-bromo-2,5-
dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), and ketamine (KET), norketamine (NKT) in human hair. Ten milligrams of human hair was washed by water and methanol followed by soaking in a solution of 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol for 18 hours. The analytes from the methanolic extract were isolated by a SPE procedure before being derivatized using heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) at 80°C for 40 minutes. The selected ion monitoring (SIM) method was used for the quantification of the derivatized compounds. The linear range was from 0.5-40 ng/mg for all of the analytes with the coefficient of determination (R2)>0.9971. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies were in the range of 93.63-112.40% and 94.70-110.20%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) were in the range of 8.72 and 9.73, respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) for each analyte were less than 0.10 and 0.32 ng/mg, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 75.18-89.30%. The GC-MS was used for the hair analysis on 51 subjects suspected to be ATSs and ketamine user. The average content of all the analytes was in the range of 1.14-12.70 ng/mg. On the basis of these results, the method was proved to be effective for identification and quantitation of above mentioned nine narcotics.


Amphetamine-type stimulants, Ketamine, GC-MS, Hair

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