[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2022.05.22.110Pharm Sci Asia 2022; 49(5), 506-517

Controlled release of DEET and Picaridin mosquito repellents from microcapsules prepared by complex coacervation using gum Arabic and chitosan

Worn Donchai1, Arunee Kongdee Aldred2,3*, Anuluck Junkum4, Arpaporn Chansang4

1 Applied Chemistry Program, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
2 Program in Industrial Chemistry and Textile Technology, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
3 Research Center for Agriculture and Environmental Innovation, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
4 Center of Insect Vector Study, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Microcapsules (MCs) of mosquito repellents (DEET and Picaridin) were prepared by complex coacervation using gum Arabic and chitosan as wall materials. The resulting diameters of MCs were 2.35±0.76 µm for DEET and 4.26±1.77 µm for Picaridin, analyzed by optical microscopy. Spherical mononuclear-type MCs were also observed. The mean particle size of dried DEET-MC and Picaridin-MC was 182 µm and 140 µm, respectively, indicating agglomeration of MCs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the encapsulation of repellents by the appearance of carbonyl (C=O) absorption bands in the associated spectra. Moreover, the microencapsulation efficiency was 60% and 73% for DEET and Picaridin, respectively, determined by Soxhlet extraction. From Thermogravimetric analysis, delay of DEET and Picaridin losses revealed encapsulation of DEET and Picaridin inside the MCs. In addition, the higher release rate of Picaridin compared to DEET under isothermal conditions was correlated with longer protective time relative to the free repellents, as demonstrated by the “arm in cage” test. The study concludes that microencapsulated DEET and Picaridin show high promise of functional textiles for mosquito repellency.


Microcapsules, DEET, Picaridin, Arm in cage, Complex coacervation

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