[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2022.04.22.061Pharm Sci Asia 2022; 49(4), 381-389

Antibacterial hydrogel containing Piper betle L. extract for acne treatment, an ex vivo investigation

Duyen Thi My Huynh1, Minh-Ngoc T. Le1, Van De Tran2, Duy Toan Pham3*

1 Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Can Tho, Vietnam
2 Department of Drug Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Can Tho, Vietnam
3 Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Can Tho University, Can Tho, Vietnam

The current treatments of acne vulgaris and acne-like disorders such as gram-negative folliculitis possess lots of unwanted side effects. Thus, alternative approach of utilizing natural plant extracts, specifically Piper betle L., have gained much attention. To this end, this work developed, characterized, and ex vivo evaluated novel antibiotics hydrogels containing P. betle L. leaf extract for acne treatment. Firstly, the design of experiments (DoE) D-optimal method was successfully developed, optimized, and validated, to investigate the relationship between P. betle L. extraction conditions and the extract properties. Secondly, the best extract was encapsulated in the hydrogel formulations composed of carbopol 940, propylene glycol, and cocamidopropyl betaine. Finally, the hydrogel was ex vivo determined its antibacterial activity on bacteria isolated from 15 patient acne samples. The optimal extraction condition being an extraction solvent/plant weight ratio of 4.034:1, an extraction time of 2.147 h, and a water extract volume of 91.4 mL. This condition yielded an extract total phenolic content of 3.337±0.034 g GAE/g, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 µg/mL and 128 µg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, respectively. The hydrogel possessed suitable properties for a topical medication, including a viscosity of 6800 cps, a pH of 7.0, and a good foaming ability, at both 10°C, 25°C, and 40°C. The hydrogel showed higher antibacterial activity than the positive controls in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Conclusively, the hydrogel could become a potential pharmaceutical product for acne treatment.


Acne, Piper betle L., Extraction, Hydrogel, Antibacterial, Design of experiments

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