[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2022.02.21.141Pharm Sci Asia 2022; 49(2), 180-192

Evaluation of formulation variables on azithromycin nanoparticles prepared by emulsification solvent diffusion method using quality by design approach

Nguyen-Thach Tung*, Canh-Hung Nguyen, Huu-Manh Nguyen

- Department of Pharmaceutics, Hanoi University of Pharmacy, Vietnam

The study aims to investigate the effect of formulation variables on the characteristics of azithromycin (AZI) nanoparticles using a quality by design approach. AZI nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsification solvent diffusion method. Two critical factors, the ratio of AZI: Eudragit EPO (X1) and volume of outer aqueous medium (X2), were chosen as independent variables for central composite design. The optimized formulation was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and dissolution test. The obtained results showed variability of mean particle size, entrapment efficacy, and zeta potential from 200 to 1232 nm, 10.78 to 75.9%, and 31 to 43 mV, respectively. The main coefficients indicated that the ratio of AZI: polymer (X1) possessed a synergistic effect on mean particle size (Y1), and volume of outer aqueous medium (X2) had an antagonistic effect on particle size. The interaction between the ratio of AZI: Eudragit EPO (X1) and volume of outer aqueous medium (X2) exhibited a significant antagonistic effect on entrapment efficacy (Y2) (p<0.05). AZI existed in an amorphous state in nanoparticles that were spherical and homogeneous in shape. The nanoparticles revealed the Korsmeyer-Peppas release model, from which AZI was released faster compared to raw material.


Azithromycin, Nanoparticles, Emulsification solvent diffusion, Quality-by-design

Download full paper (PDF File size: 1,624.79 KB.)

November-December 2022

See other volume


September-October 2022

See other volume


July-August 2022

See other volume


May-June 2022

See other volume


March-April 2022

See other volume


January-February 2022

See other volume


Aims and Scope
Editorial Board
Publication Ethics
Instruction to Authors
All Volumes & Issues
Submit Online
Contact us
Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University
Mahidol University
Member's menu

You're now loging on with following account:
Guest (unknown)

Please Sign in or Register

Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia by Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Thailand is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

    Copyright © 2017-2024
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, THAILAND

We use Cookies

This site uses cookies to personalise your experience and analyse site traffic. By Clicking ACCEPT or continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.