[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
Print ISSN 2586-8195 E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2020.01.018.0035Pharm Sci Asia 2020; 47(1), 43-50

Assessing the outcomes of farmers on promoting herbal medicine use

Pakakrong Kwankhao1,Kaemthong Indaratna2,Luerat Anuratpanich3,Arthorn Riewpaiboon3*

1 Pharmacy Department, Chao Phya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital, Prachinburi, Thailand
2 Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
3 Social and Administrative Pharmacy Excellence Research (SAPER) Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

The objective of this study is to assess outcomes of farmers who are in herbal medicine (HM) production phase by using Logical Framework (LF) as a new approach. One hundred ninety-seven farmers participating in contract farming scheme of one social enterprise (SE) in Thailand were the subjects of the study. The mixed method (a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches) study was conducted between December 2015 to June 2016. There were 3 steps of outcome assessment; outcome identification, questionnaire development and outcome confirmation. The results showed that all farmers experienced four outcomes within eight years of participation in contract farming scheme which were increase of income, more stable and regular income, decrease of health expense and improvement of environment condition. The indicators for four outcomes were presented; 69,287 baht of increased income, 95% of times receiving paid on time, 604.23 baht of reduced health expense and achievement to the standard of pollution control department for heavy metal level. In conclusion, promotion of HM use could create significant outcomes to farmers as mentioned earlier. Though, the results of this study may not be generalized to other farmers as the activities provided by this SE are unique but it is an example to build partnerships with farmers in order to ensure quality of herbal raw materials. Additionally, LF may be applied to measure outcomes from other stakeholders in HM value chain as it is the stakeholder engagement tool that may contribute to sustainable development of organization.


Farmers; Herbal medicine; Logical Framework; Outcome assessment

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