[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
Print ISSN 2586-8195 E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: https://doi.org/10.14456/mujps.2015.1Pharm Sci Asia 2015; 42(1), 39-46

Effect of formulations on in vitro skin permeation of some metals from mineral clays

A. Priprem1* and L. Wankao2

1 Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 40002
2 Department of Geology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 40002

Mineral clay from the evaporites of the Cretaceous to early Tertiary Maha Sarakham Formation in some regions of the Northeast of Thailand containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+, in various mineral forms, was used for external applications. Samples of mineral clay were collected in Udonthani and pulverized by heat to obtain plain clay (particle sizes of < 75 μm) and then maturated to obtain mature clay. Two gel formulas, a polymer gel (formula 1) and a mineral gel (formula 2), were prepared to incorporate plain clay. In vitro skin permeation of Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ from plain clay, mature clay and plain clay in formula 1 or formula 2 through full-thickness skin of newborn pigs (n =6) were compared by using Franz diffusion cells and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Trace amounts of these metals were detected in the receptor fluid. Maturation of clay with smaller size significantly enhanced skin permeation of Cu2+ (p = 0.04), Mn2+ (p = 0.04) and Zn2+ (p = 0.01). Formula 1 and size reduction affect permeation of Cu2+ (p = 0.04) and Zn2+ (p = 0.01), while formula 2 and size reduction affect permeation of Mn2+ (p = 0.02) and Zn2+ (p = 0.01). Initial content and skin permeation of plain clay are comparatively in the same order, as follows: Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. Therefore, some trace elements, Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ from mineral clay can permeate the skin by diffusion with additional effects from formulation and particle size reduction.


mineral clay, in vitro skin permeation, Mg2+, Mn2+ , Zn2+ , Cu2+

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