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Thai Traditional Medicine Theory in Relation to Seasons Part 2


Omboon Vallisuta (Assoc. Prof.)
Department of Pharmacognosy
Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
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Since 2011-09-18
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The five principles of disease development

  1. Mahabhutarupa
  2. The 5 ailments ( bile, blood, semha, gumdao and vayu)
  3. The Tridosha (vata, pitta, semha or kapha).
  4. Prated samuthan (Geography)
  5. Prana chakra

1. Mahabhutarupa
In this principle each of the four dhatus is organized into 3 sub-groups which are related to the Tridosha and the 5 ailments as follow:
Pathavi Dhatu consists of hatayan (heart), utariyan (new food or digestion system) and grisan (old food or the balance within the colon).
Apo Dhatu consists of sorsemha ( the mucous from the nose, throat until the end of esophagus), urasemha ( the mucous within trachea, lung, the chest), kootasemha ( the mucous within the intestines and anus).
The Vayo dhatu consists of Hataivata ( the vayu within the heart and circulatory system) , Satagavata ( the vayu within the internal organs i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney) , Sumanavata ( the common vayu within pranachakra energy lines i.e. Ita, Pingkala, Sumana and Suchumunai).
The Techo dhatu consists of Pattapitta ( the bile within the gall bladder) it is necessary for the digestion, Apattapitta ( the bile outside the gall bladder i.e. in the liver and in the blood vessels) it is necessary for the immune system, Gumdao (the maintainance of normal body temperature).

2. The 5 ailments ( bile, blood, semha, vayu and gumdao)
TTM has identified 5 simple ailments due to the dysfunction of bile, blood, semha, vayu and gumdao systems.
Bile ailment is involved with metabolism of the body which are related to the function of stomach, liver, blood and intestine.
Blood ailment is involved with the whole system of blood i.e. plasma, platelet, lymphocyte etc in the blood.
Semha ailment is involved with all secretions covering the cells and tissues of various organs.
Vayu ailment is involved with the dysfunction of vata system in mahabhutarupa (hatai vata, Sataga vata and Sumana vata) which cause tension in the nervous system, blood vessels and tissues, results in the imbalance of Mahabhutarupa in the four dhatus.
Gumdao ailment is related to the warmth of body which is the result of balance between bile,semha and vayu.

3. The Tridosha (vata, pitta, semha or kapha)
This principle is related to the energy system within human body which could be recognized as Qi in Chinese medicine.
The vata system in tridosha refers to the Ita line starts from the left toe up to the knee down to the dorsal at the knee, goes up to the left hip then cross to the right of the spine into the brain to the right nostril.
The pitta system in tridosha refers to the pingkala line begins at the right toe up to the knee and down to the dorsal at the knee, goes up to the right hip then cross to the left of spine into the brain and down to the left nostril.
The kapha system in tridosha refers to suchumunai line which originates in the coccyx goes up the spine and into brain and combines with Ita and Pingkala in the nostrils. This line is equivalent to dumai in TCM. These 3 lines are involved with the gurunadi or pulse reading.

4. Pratedsamuthan (Geography)
TTM has identified geography as a form of external factors which causes certain ailments for people who live in such areas. These are the 5 simple ailments i.e. bile, blood, semha, vayu and gumdao.
Ganta prated has a lot of fresh water i.e. rivers and canals, soil of clay types, a lot of sea water. People live in this area will suffer from semha and vayu more than the rest.
Sakorn prated has a lot of stones, sand and gravel, scant water and plants. People in this area will suffer from blood and gumdao more than the rest.
Satarana prated has plenty of fresh water, sea water, soil, stones, sand and gravel. People in this area will suffer from all 5 ailments.

5. Pranachakra Energy Lines
This concept resulted from the observation by traditional doctors dated back thousands of years which cannot be explained by the available scientific knowledge at present. The ancient doctors accept the presence of these lines of energy and used them for massage and formulation of herbal drugs. There are 14 lines and 6 olarn (big) chakras involve in the treatment with medicine. The top chakra (the seventh) is involved with spiritual aspect of the body. These olarn chakras are called sahasara (crown), ajna (third eye), visuddha (throat), anahata (heart), manipura (navel), svadisthana (hip, genital), muladhara (root). The 14 energy lines are called ita*, sumana*, dhavari, ulanga, tischa, ongkamavata*, pingkala*, kalatari, sahasarangsi, lawusang, nanthakrawat, sahasamonkol, suchumunai*, and jantapusam*(the star * indicates connection with the olarn chakras).

Bibliography

  1. Vejsartsongkrok 1923. (Bangkok): Liengsieng Jongjaroen; 1962 (in Thai).
  2. Sirithamawanich S. The Philosophy of Eastern Medicine, book 1. 2006 (in Thai).
  3. Sirithamawanich S. The Philosophy of Eastern Medicine, book 4. 2007 (in Thai).
  4. Vallisuta O and Sirithamwanich S. Ritu related dysfynctions of Mahabhutarupa in the context of Thai Traditional Medicine, Unani Medicus, 1(1), 2010, 12-16.

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