[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: 10.29090/psa.2019.04.018.0044Pharm Sci Asia 2019; 46(4), 218-230

Vitamin C, folate, and phytochemical compounds of organically versus inorganically grown fruits and vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand

Ratchanee Kongkachuichai*, Rin Charoensiri, Aurawan Kettawan

- Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

Currently, organic plants are very popular among consumers due to lack of pesticide residues and their being good sources of bioactive compounds. However, only a few reports have compared bioactive compounds in organically versus inorganically grown plants. Consequently, this study’s objective was to determine vitamin C, folate, carotenoid and flavonoid contents in 5 varieties of vegetables (kale; Brassica albroglabra, cabbage; Brassica oleracea var. capitata, carrot; Daucus carota subsp, tomato; Solanum lycopersicum and yardlong bean; Vigna unguiculata ssp. Sesquipedalis) and 5 varieties of fruits (pineapple; Ananas comosus, papaya; Carica papaya, long kong; Lansium parasiticum, rambutan; Nephelium Lappaceum and watermelon; Citrullus lanatus) that had been grown organically and inorganically . Results showed that vitamin C and folate contents in inorganic plants, particularly, carrot, yardlong bean, pineapple, papaya, and watermelon were slightly higher than those of organic ones. While carotenoid contents in organic Chinese kale, tomato, and yardlong bean were significantly higher than those of inorganic ones. However, vitamin C, total carotenoid and flavonoid contents were not significantly different between organic and inorganic plants, except for Chinese kale. It is noted that, nearly all the selected vegetables and fruits in present study were good sources of vitamins and phytochemicals, especially Chinese kale showed excellent amounts of vitamin C, folate, carotenoid and flavonoids while watermelon contained good amount of lycopene. Therefore, regularly consumed fruits and vegetables especially Chinese kale and watermelon as a plant-based diet might lower the risk of chronic disease due to the presence of high amount of bioactive compounds in them.


Organic, Inorganic, Fruits and vegetables, Bioactive compounds, Vitamin C, Folate

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