[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


DOI: https://doi.org/10.29090/psa.2017.04.209Pharm Sci Asia 2017; 44(4), 209-216

Efficacy of essential oil formulations against malodor causing bacteria

P. Khuntayaporn1*, J. Suksiriworapong2,3

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
3 Center of Excellence in Innovative Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Malodor is an unpleasant sense induced by overgrowth of malodor causing bacteria. These bacteria can produce volatile organic compounds from their normal metabolisms. To reduce malodor, good hygiene combined with antimicrobial agents are suggested resulting in lowering amount of foot odor-producing bacteria. Essential oils have many favorable properties including unique senses and antimicrobial activities. In this study, eight essential oils were tested against five malodor causing bacteria. From the results, lemongrass oil exhibited the lowest MICs and MBCs. Meanwhile, clove oil and cinnamon leaf oil showed lower potency than lemongrass oil. Therefore, lemongrass oil was selected to be developed self-emulsifying formulations for foot bath. Four surfactants were chosen to test the compatibility with lemongrass oil. Only Tween 20 and Span 20 gave clear appearance and no phase separation after mixed with the oil and they were combined to be used in the formulation. The highest concentration of lemongrass oil in the formulation was 40% w/w. Tween 20 and Span 20 were mixed at various ratios ranged from 50:10% to 10:50% w/w. After mixing with water, all formulations could be simply emulsified with the particle size of less than 200 nm and no phase separation was observed. The formulation containing 40:50:10% w/w of oil:Tween 20:Span 20 demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity and its MICs and MBCs were lower than lemongrass oil alone due to the formation of very fine emulsion. This formulation showed promising potential for the development of foot bath self-emulsifying emulsion formulation to be used in Thai spa


Essential oil, antibacterial activity, self-emulsifying, malodor causing bacteria, foot bath

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