[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
Print ISSN 2586-8195 E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


Pharm Sci Asia ; 36(1),

Sappan Wood Extract Used as Preservative in Chili Paste

S. Saraya*, R. Temsiririrkkul, C. Manamuti, Y. Wongkrajang and C. Cheewansirisuk


The study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity and the antimicrobial property of sappan heartwood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) water extract as natural food preservative. The antimicrobial activities (MIC, MBC and MFC) were evaluated using the 96-well microdilution broth method. Antioxidant activities were determined using the free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The MICs of sappan wood extract 1 obtained from the antimicrobial activity testing against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans were 250, 125, 500 and more than 16,000 ?g/ml, respectively, and were higher than MICs of those sappan wood extracts 2, 3 and 4. The solubility of sappan wood extract 1 was also well soluble. The sappan wood extracts at 2, 4, 8 times of the selected maximum MIC (500 µg/ml) were added to chili paste a favorite Thai food, and were packed in two kinds of utensil (glass and plastic) with covers in order to determine the preservative property up to 12 months (and 3 months repeated). From the total aerobic and fungal count in chili paste, it could be concluded that sappan wood extract could inhibit bacteria but not fungal. Therefore, sappan wood extract could be used as a preservative in food to inhibit bacterial growth for 6 months. Sappan wood extract at the concentration of 2 times of the MIC value can be used as a food preservative. The total aerobic count of chili paste packed in plastic utensils and glass utensils was variable. Therefore, it was difficult to conclude whether plastic or glass utensils would be appropriate to be used for chili paste products. Sappan wood extracts 1, 2, 3 and 4 provided 50 % inhibition (IC50) at the concentration of 23.19, 38.30, 29.82 and 71.54 ?g/ml, respectively, while ascorbic acid and trolox showed IC50 at the concentration of 17.11 ?g/ml and 24.27 ?g/ml, respectively. Sappan wood extract also show promise to be a good antioxidant, which will increase the value of products and be useful for health.


Caesalpinia sappan L., chili paste, preservative, antimicrobial activities, antioxidant, Sappan Wood

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