[ Pharmaceutical Sciences Asia - ONLINE ]
Print ISSN 2586-8195 E-ISSN 2586-8470
[ Journal Abbreviation: Pharm.Sci.Asia ]
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  FORMER NAME   "Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences" Published Since 1974


Pharm Sci Asia ; 40(2),

Factorial Design Applied to Subcritical Water Extraction for the Investigation of Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Gynura calciphila Kerr

O. Anurukvorakun*


The aim of this work was to study of antioxidant capacity and the flavonoid content of Gynura calciphila using different extraction procedures. An environmental kindly technique, subcritical water extraction (SWE), was compared to the traditional extraction (ethanolic extract). The results revealed that quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid, was found as a major component in both extraction procedures. The use of SWE provided higher quercetin content and antioxidant activity. Quercetin content by SWE and traditional extraction were 44.6 ?g/ml and 35.1 ?g/ml, respectively. The EC50 (effective concentration, 50%) of SWE and traditional extraction were 508 and 518 ?g/ml, respectively. Additionally, potential factors affecting SWE (temperature, extraction time and material ratio) were investigated their influence and interaction on the antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content using full factorial design. Results from factorial design provided good model equations for the prediction of SWE condition on the antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content. The equations indicate that temperature is the most significant factor of SWE technique on the antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content. This work demonstrated the traditional time-consuming techniques for 12 hours of the extraction of flavonoids could be substituted for the SWE technique within 1 hour. Most of all, SWE is an alternative procedure for consumer safety.


Subcritical water, Antioxidant activity, Gynura calciphila Kerr, Factorial design

Download full paper (PDF File size: 1,586.37 KB.)

October - December 2013

See other volume


July - September 2013

See other volume


April - June 2013

See other volume


January - March 2013

See other volume


Aims and Scope
Editorial Board
Publication Ethics
Instruction to Authors
All Volumes & Issues
Submit Online
Contact us
Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University
Mahidol University
Member's menu

You're now loging on with following account:
Guest (unknown)

Please Sign in or Register

    Copyright © 2017
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, THAILAND